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The Central Nervous System

In the human anatomy the functions of the body and the mind are governed by the central nervous system (CNS). It comprises the brain and the spinal cord. These two organs help in the transmission and interpretation of sensory impulses. The brain integrates and aligns body functions such as thought processes, movements, homeostasis, and emotions among others. The spinal cord acts as a channel for the relay of signals to and from the brain and other parts of the body. Another role of the spinal cord detached from the brain is the muscular and skeletal reflex actions. The CNS is the center of processing of functions and information for the entire nervous system.

Common Features between the Brain and the Spinal Cord.

The whole of the CNS is enclosed in bony structure because the nervous tissues are jelly and needs shield from physical harm. Cranium encases the brain while vertebrae provides the conduit for the spinal cord. Another feature is that both the brain and spinal cord are soaked in the colorless Cerebrospinal fluid generated in some differentiated brain structures. The fluid guards against external impacts and gives the nervous tissues the chemical environment. Moreover, they have capillaries which are impermeable membranes, thus separating the blood in circulation form the brain extracellular fluid that is present in the CNS.

How it functions

The CNS has two types of tissues; the gray matter which is comprised of neurons, axons and dendrites and the white matter that mainly consist the axons. The CNS manifests its functions through the collection, processing and acting upon information on both internal and external environments. The neurons have terminals in form of axons and dendrites and these help the neurons to form a networked mesh in the whole system. The neurons convey electrical impulses from one neuron to the next until the message reaches the specific processing center in the brain and feedback is transmitted via the same channel for corrective mechanism.


The CNS is of paramount importance to the survival of the body hence life itself. This is because the system aid in detecting both the internal and external environment and facilitates appropriate responses towards various messages from these environments. Without the CNS the complex functions occurring at conscious and unconscious levels would not be possible. It is simply the engine of the whole organism and in the human anatomy it is the system that determines the overall well-being of the person.

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